• 3-aminobenzanthrone, a human metabolite of the carcinogenic environmental pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone, induces biotransformation enzymes in rat kidney and lung.

      Stiborova, Marie; Dracinska, Helena; Martinkova, Marketa; Mizerovska, Jana; Hudecek, Jiri; Hodek, Petr; Liberda, Jiri; Frei, Eva; Schmeiser, Heinz H.; Phillips, David H.; et al. (2009-05-31)
      3-aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA) is the metabolite of the carcinogenic air pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA). 3-ABA was investigated for its ability to induce cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) in kidney and lung of rats, and for the influence of such induction on DNA adduct formation by 3-ABA and 3-NBA. NQO1 is the enzyme that reduces 3-NBA to N-hydroxy-3-aminobenzanthrone (N-OH-3-ABA) and CYP1A enzymes oxidize 3-ABA to the same intermediate. When activated by cytosolic and and/or microsomal fractions isolated from rat lung, the target organ for 3-NBA carcinogenicity, and kidney, both compounds generated the same DNA-adduct pattern, consisting of five adducts. When pulmonary cytosols isolated from rats that had been treated i.p. with 40 mg/kg bw of 3-ABA were incubated with 3-NBA, DNA adduct formation was up to 1.7-fold higher than in incubations with cytosols from control animals. This increase corresponded to an increase in protein level and enzymatic activity of NQO1. In contrast, no induction of NQO1 expression by 3-ABA treatment was found in the kidney. Incubations of 3-ABA with renal and pulmonary microsomes of 3-ABA-treated rats led to an increase of up to a 4.5-fold in DNA-adduct formation relative to controls. The stimulation of DNA-adduct formation correlated with a higher protein expression and activity of CYP1A1 induced by 3-ABA. These results show that by inducing lung and kidney CYP1A1 and NQO1, 3-ABA increases its own enzymatic activation as well as that of the environmental pollutant, 3-NBA, thereby enhancing the genotoxic and carcinogenic potential of both compounds.
    • Air pollution, oxidative damage to DNA, and carcinogenesis.

      Moller, Peter; Folkmann, Janne Kjaersgaard; Forchhammer, Lykke; Brauner, Elvira Vaclavik; Danielsen, Pernille Hogh; Risom, Lotte; Loft, Steffen (2008-07-18)
      There is growing concern that air pollution exposure increases the risk of lung cancer. The mechanism of action is related to particle-induced oxidative stress and oxidation of DNA. Humans exposed to urban air with vehicle emissions have elevated levels of oxidized guanine bases in blood cells and urine. Animal experimental studies show that pulmonary and gastrointestinal exposure is associated with elevated levels of oxidized guanines in the lung and other organs. Collectively, there is evidence indicating that exposure to traffic-related air pollution particles is associated with oxidative damage to DNA and this might be associated with increased risk of cancer.
    • The aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent deregulation of cell cycle control induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rat liver epithelial cells.

      Andrysik, Zdenek; Vondracek, Jan; Machala, Miroslav; Krcmar, Pavel; Svihalkova-Sindlerova, Lenka; Kranz, Anne; Weiss, Carsten; Faust, Dagmar; Kozubík, Alois; Dietrich, Cornelia (2007-02-03)
      Disruption of cell proliferation control by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may contribute to their carcinogenicity. We investigated role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in disruption of contact inhibition in rat liver epithelial WB-F344 'stem-like' cells, induced by the weakly mutagenic benz[a]anthracene (BaA), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF) and by the strongly mutagenic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). There were significant differences between the effects of BaA and BbF, and those of the strongly genotoxic BaP. Both BaA and BbF increased percentage of cells entering S-phase and cell numbers, associated with an increased expression of Cyclin A and Cyclin A/cdk2 complex activity. Their effects were significantly reduced in cells expressing a dominant-negative AhR mutant (dnAhR). Roscovitine, a chemical inhibitor of cdk2, abolished the induction of cell proliferation by BbF. However, neither BaA nor BbF modulated expression of the principal cdk inhibitor involved in maintenance of contact inhibition, p27(Kip1), or pRb phosphorylation. The strongly mutagenic BaP induced apoptosis, a decrease in total cell numbers and significantly higher percentage of cells entering S-phase than either BaA or BbF. Given that BaP induced high levels of Cyclin A/cdk2 activity, downregulation of p27(Kip1) and hyperphosphorylation of pRb, the accumulation of cells in S-phase was probably due to cell proliferation, although S-phase arrest due to blocked replication forks can not be excluded. Both types of effects of BaP were significantly attenuated in dnAhR cells. Transfection of WB-F344 cells with siRNA targeted against AhR decreased induction of Cyclin A induced by BbF or BaP, further supporting the role of AhR in proliferative effects of PAHs. This suggest that activation of AhR plays a significant role both in disruption of contact inhibition by weakly mutagenic PAHs and in genotoxic effects of BaP possibly leading to enhanced cell proliferation. Thus, PAHs may increase proliferative rate and the likelihood of fixation of mutations.
    • Determination of endogenous and exogenously derived N7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine adducts in ethylene oxide-treated rats.

      Marsden, Debbie A.; Jones, Donald J.L.; Lamb, John H.; Tompkins, Elaine M.; Farmer, Peter B.; Brown, Karen (2007-02)
      Ethylene oxide (EO) is one of the most widely used intermediates in the chemical industry. It is also formed endogenously as a result of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of ethylene, which is ubiquitous in the environment. Additionally, ethylene is generated in vivo during normal physiological processes such as methionine oxidation and lipid peroxidation; therefore, humans are continually exposed to EO. EO is classed by the IARC as carcinogenic to humans and reacts with DNA, primarily forming N7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine adducts (N7-HEG), which can be used as biomarkers of exposure and potential cancer risk. To assess the risks to humans associated with occupational exposure to low EO concentrations, it is necessary to establish the relative contribution of DNA damage arising from endogenous and exogenously derived EO. Using a newly developed highly sensitive LC-MS/MS assay with selected reaction monitoring that offers a limit of detection of 0.1 fmol of N7-HEG on column, we have established background levels of N7-HEG (1.1-3.5 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) in tissues of rats. Following intraperitoneal administration of a single dose or three daily doses of EO (0.01-1.0 mg/kg), N7-HEG adducts generally increased with dose, except at the lowest concentration where total N7-HEG levels were no different to that detected in control animals, indicating that any increase was negligible as compared to the endogenous damage already present. In the 3 day study, the kinetics of adduct removal were also investigated and in comparing N7-HEG formation in the two studies, DNA damage did not appear to accumulate with repeated administration.
    • Development and validation of a new, sensitive immunochemical assay for O⁶-methylguanine in DNA and its application in a population study.

      Georgiadis, Panagiotis; Kaila, Stella; Makedonopoulou, Paraskevi; Fthenou, Eleni; Chatzi, Leda; Pletsa, Vasiliki; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A. (2011-01)
      Investigations of the presence of the precarcinogenic DNA adduct O⁶-methylguanine (O6-meG) in humans and its association with exposure or cancer risk have been hindered by the absence of analytic methods of adequate sensitivity and throughput. We report the development, validation, and application of an ELISA-type assay for O6-meG appropriate for large-scale population studies.
    • Different mechanisms involved in apoptosis following exposure to benzo[a]pyrene in F258 and Hepa1c1c7 cells.

      Holme, Jorn A.; Gorria, Morgane; Arlt, Volker M.; Ovrebo, Steinar; Solhaug, Anita; Tekpli, Xavier; Landvik, Nina E.; Huc, Laurence; Fardel, Olivier; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique (2007-04-05)
      The present study compares and elucidates possible mechanisms why B[a]P induces different cell signals and triggers apparently different apoptotic pathways in two rather similar cell lines (hepatic epithelial cells of rodents). The rate and maximal capacity of metabolic activation, as measured by the formation of B[a]P-tetrols and B[a]P-DNA adducts, was much higher in mouse hepatoma Hepa1c1c7 cells than in rat liver epithelial F258 cells due to a higher induced level of cyp1a1. B[a]P increased intracellular pH in both cell lines, but this change modulated the apoptotic process only in F258 cells. In Hepa1c1c7 cells reactive oxygen species (ROS) production appeared to be a consequence of toxicity, unlike F258 cells in which it was an initial event. The increased mitochondrial membrane potential found in F258 cells was not observed in Hepa1c1c7 cells. Surprisingly, F258 cells cultured at low cell density were somewhat more sensitive to low (50nM) B[a]P concentrations than Hepa1c1c7 cells. This could be explained partly by metabolic differences at low B[a]P concentrations. In contrast to the Hepa1c1c7 model, no activation of cell survival signals including p-Akt, p-ERK1/2 and no clear inactivation of pro-apoptotic Bad was observed in the F258 model following exposure to B[a]P. Another important difference between the two cell lines was related to the role of Bax and cytochrome c. In Hepa1c1c7 cells, B[a]P exposure resulted in a "classical" translocation of Bax to the mitochondria and release of cytochrome c, whereas in F258 cells no intracellular translocation of these two proteins was seen. These results suggest that the rate of metabolism of B[a]P and type of reactive metabolites formed influence the resulting balance of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic cell signaling, and hence the mechanisms involved in cell death and the chances of more permanent genetic damage.
    • Differential protection by human glutathione S-transferase P1 against cytotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, or their dihydrodiol metabolites, in bi-transgenic cell lines that co-express rat versus human cytochrome P4501A1.

      Kabler, Sandra L.; Seidel, Albrecht; Jacob, Juergen; Doehmer, Johannes; Morrow, Charles S.; Townsend, Alan J. (2009-05-15)
      Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are activated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes, and a subset of the reactive metabolites generated is detoxified via conjugation with glutathione (GSH) by specific glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). We have used V79MZ cells stably transfected with either human or rat cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1), alone or in combination with human GSTP1 (hGSTP1), to examine the dynamics of activation versus detoxification of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P), and their dihydrodiol metabolites. The cytotoxicity of B[a]P or DB[a,l]P was 9-11-fold greater in cells expressing human, as compared to rat CYP1A1, despite similar enzymatic activities. Co-expression of the hGSTP1 with the hCYP1A1 conferred 16-fold resistance to B[a]P cytotoxicity, compared to only 2.5-fold resistance when hGSTP1 was co-expressed with rat CYP1A1. The lower B[a]P cytotoxicity in the cells expressing rat CYP1A1, and weaker protection by hGSTP1 co-expression in these cells, were attributable to the much lower fraction of B[a]P metabolism via formation of the 7,8-dihydrodiol intermediate by the rat CYP1A1 compared to hCYP1A1. Resistance to the DB[a,l]P cytotoxicity conferred by hGSTP1 expression was also greater in cells co-expressing hCYP1A1 (7-fold) as compared to cells co-expressing rCYP1A1 (<2-fold). Resistance to B[a]P conferred by hGSTP1 was closely correlated with the activity level in two clonal transfectant lines with a 3-fold difference in hGSTP1-1 specific activity. Depletion of GSH to 20% of control levels via pretreatment with the de novo GSH biosynthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine reduced the protection against B[a]P cytotoxicity by hGSTP1 from 16-fold to 5-fold, indicating that catalysis of conjugation with GSH, rather than binding or other effects, is responsible for the resistance. The cytotoxicity of the dihydrodiol intermediates of B[a]P or DB[a,l]P was much greater, and similar in cell lines expressing either human or rat CYP1A1. Again, however, the protection conferred by hGSTP1 co-expression was 2-5-fold greater in cells with hCYP1A1 than with rCYP1A1 expression. These results indicate that GST expression can effectively limit cytotoxicity following activation of B[a]P by human or rat CYP1A1, but is less effective as a defense against exposure of cells to the intermediate metabolite B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol.
    • DNA adduct formation and oxidative stress from the carcinogenic urban air pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone and its isomer 2-nitrobenzanthrone, in vitro and in vivo.

      Nagy, Eszter; Adachi, Shuichi; Takamura-Enya, Takeji; Zeisig, Magnus; Moller, Lennart (2007-03)
      The carcinogenic vehicle emission product 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is known to rearrange in the atmosphere to the isomer 2-nitrobenzanthrone (2-NBA), which exists in 70-fold higher concentration in ambient air. The genotoxicity of 2-NBA and 3-NBA was studied both in vitro (human cell lines A549 and HepG2) and in vivo (F344 female rats intra-tracheally administered 5 mg/kg body weight of 3-NBA) models, using the (32)P-HPLC and the single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) methods. In vitro, also the parent compound benzanthrone (BA) and the metabolite 3-aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA) were evaluated. 3-NBA gave highest levels of DNA adducts in the two cell lines, but significantly higher in HepG2 (relative adduct level approximately 500 adducts/10(8) normal nucleotides), whereas 2-NBA formed about one-third and one-twentieth of the DNA adduct amount in A549 and HepG2 cells, respectively. 3-ABA formed only minute amounts of DNA adducts and only in the A549 cells, whereas BA did not give rise to any detectable levels. The DNA adduct patterns from 3-NBA were similar between the two model systems, but differed somewhat for 2-NBA. The oxidative stress induced by BA was almost as high as what was observed for 3-NBA and 3-ABA in both cell lines, and 2-NBA induced lowest level of oxidative stress. The oxidative stress and DNA adduct level, in whole blood, was significantly increased by 3-NBA but not by 2-NBA. However, 2-NBA showed similar toxicity to 3-NBA, with respect to DNA adduct formation in vivo, hence it is important to further study 2-NBA as a potential contributor to health risk. While DNA adduct level in the 3-NBA-exposed animals reached a peak around 1 and 2 days after instillation, 2-NBA-treated animals showed a tendency towards a continuing increase at the end of the study.
    • DNA damage and acute toxicity caused by the urban air pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone in rats: characterization of DNA adducts in eight different tissues and organs with synthesized standards.

      Nagy, Eszter; Adachi, Shuichi; Takamura-Enya, Takeji; Zeisig, Magnus; Moller, Lennart (2006-08)
      3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is an urban air pollutant and rat lung carcinogen that is among the most potent mutagens yet tested in the Salmonella reversion assay. In the present study, 1 mg 3-NBA was administered orally to female F344 rats and DNA adduct formation was examined in liver, lung, kidney and five sections of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract at 6 hr, and 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 days after administration. The DNA adduct patterns, analyzed by (32)P-postlabelling followed by HPLC separation, were similar in all tissues and organs. Five of the adduct peaks cochromatographed with synthesized DNA adduct standards. Three of these unequivocally determined standards, dGp-C8-N-ABA, dGp-N2-C2-ABA, and dAp-N6-C2-ABA, were of the nonacetylated type, suggesting that at least part of the pathway for activation of 3-NBA proceeds through O-acetylation of the hydroxylamine intermediate. The two other DNA adduct standards, dGp-C8-C2-N-Ac-ABA, and dGp-N2-C2-N-Ac-ABA, were of the acetylated type, but there was some ambiguity in the characterization of these DNA adducts, since they varied inconsistently between samples and they also aligned with peaks found in controls. At 6 hr after treatment, the level of DNA adducts was highest in glandular stomach (relative adduct labeling (RAL), approximately 70 adducts/10(8) normal nucleotides (NN)); adduct levels in this organ decreased at 24 hr, but increased afterwards. DNA adduct levels in the majority of organs were characterized by an early increase (from 6 hr to 3 days), which was followed by a decrease at 5 days and a maximum level 10 days after administration (RAL approximately 120 adducts/10(8) NN for the lung, kidney and glandular stomach, approximately 80 adducts/10(8) NN for the forestomach and ceacum, and approximately 40 adducts/10(8) NN for the liver, small intestine, and colon). This pattern was consistent with pathological observations during autopsy showing high levels of tissue damage in the GI tract; the tissue damage included hemorrhages, loss of villous surface structure in the small intestine, as well as intestine fragility and oedema of the adipose tissue around the GI-tract. Tissue damage decreased and DNA adduct levels increased at 10 days after administration. These observations suggest that 3-NBA not only exerts acute toxic effects, but that the bioavailability is affected by storage in tissues and later becomes available, resulting in the increased DNA adduct levels at the later time points of collection.
    • DNA damage in rats after a single oral exposure to diesel exhaust particles.

      Danielsen, Pernille Hogh; Risom, Lotte; Wallin, Hakan; Autrup, Herman; Vogel, Ulla; Loft, Steffen; Moller, Peter (2008-01-01)
      The gastrointestinal route of exposure to particulate matter is important because particles are ingested via contaminated foods and inhaled particles are swallowed when removed from the airways by the mucociliary clearance system. We investigated the effect of an intragastric administration by oral gavage of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in terms of DNA damage, oxidative stress and DNA repair in colon epithelial cells, liver, and lung of rats. Eight rats per group were exposed to Standard Reference Material 2975 at 0.064 or 0.64 mg/kg bodyweight for 6 and 24 h. Increased levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine lesions were observed at the highest dose after 6 and 24 h in all three organs. 8-Oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine is repaired by oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1); upregulation of this repair system was observed as elevated pulmonary OGG1 mRNA levels after 24 h at both doses of DEP, but not in the colon and liver. A general response of the antioxidant defence system is further indicated by elevated levels of heme oxygenase 1 mRNA in the liver and lung 24 h after administration. The level of bulky DNA adducts was increased in liver and lung at both doses after 6 and 24h (DNA adducts in colon epithelium were not investigated). In summary, DEP administered via the gastrointestinal tract at low doses relative to ambient exposure generates DNA damage and increase the expression of defence mechanisms in organs such as the lung and liver. The oral exposure route should be taken into account in risk assessment of particulate matter.
    • Drug-metabolizing enzymes in the skin of man, rat, and pig.

      Oesch, Franz; Fabian, Eric; Oesch-Bartlomowicz, Barbara; Werner, Christoph; Landsiedel, Robert (2007)
      The mammalian skin has long been considered to be poor in drug metabolism. However, many reports clearly show that most drug metabolizing enzymes also occur in the mammalian skin albeit at relatively low specific activities. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on drug metabolizing enzymes in the skin of human, rat, and pig, the latter, because it is often taken as a model for human skin on grounds of anatomical similarities. However only little is known about drug metabolizing enzymes in pig skin. Interestingly, some cytochromes P450 (CYP) have been observed in the rat skin which are not expressed in the rat liver, such as CYP 2B12 and CYP2D4. As far as investigated most drug metabolizing enzymes occur in the suprabasal (i.e. differentiating) layers of the epidermis, but the rat CYP1A1 rather in the basal layer and human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase rather in the stratum corneum. The pattern of drug metabolizing enzymes and their localization will impact not only the beneficial as well as detrimental properties of drugs for the skin but also dictate whether a drug reaches the blood flow unchanged or as activated or inactivated metabolite(s).
    • The environmental pollutant and carcinogen 3-nitrobenzanthrone induces cytochrome P450 1A1 and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase in rat lung and kidney, thereby enhancing its own genotoxicity.

      Stiborova, Marie; Dracinska, Helena; Mizerovska, Jana; Frei, Eva; Schmeiser, Heinz H.; Hudecek, Jiri; Hodek, Petr; Phillips, David H.; Arlt, Volker M. (2008-05-02)
      3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a carcinogen occurring in diesel exhaust and air pollution. Using the (32)P-postlabelling method, we found that 3-NBA and its human metabolite, 3-aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA), are activated to species forming DNA adducts by cytosols and/or microsomes isolated from rat lung, the target organ for 3-NBA carcinogenicity, and kidney. Each compound generated identical five DNA adducts. We have demonstrated the importance of pulmonary and renal NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) to reduce 3-NBA to species that are further activated by N,O-acetyltransferases and sulfotransferases. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 is the essential enzyme for oxidative activation of 3-ABA in microsomes of both organs, while cyclooxygenase plays a minor role. 3-NBA was also investigated for its ability to induce NQO1 and CYP1A1 in lungs and kidneys, and for the influence of such induction on DNA adduct formation by 3-NBA and 3-ABA. When cytosols from rats treated i.p. with 40mg/kg bw of 3-NBA were incubated with 3-NBA, DNA adduct formation was up to 2.1-fold higher than in incubations with cytosols from control animals. This increase corresponded to an increase in protein level and enzymatic activity of NQO1. Incubations of 3-ABA with microsomes of 3-NBA-treated rats led to up to a fivefold increase in DNA adduct formation relative to controls. The stimulation of DNA adduct formation correlated with the potential of 3-NBA to induce protein expression and activity of CYP1A1. These results demonstrate that 3-NBA is capable to induce NQO1 and CYP1A1 in lungs and kidney of rats thereby enhancing its own genotoxic and carcinogenic potential.
    • Formation and persistence of DNA adducts formed by the carcinogenic air pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone in target and non-target organs after intratracheal instillation in rats.

      Bieler, Christian A.; Cornelius, Michael G.; Stiborova, Marie; Arlt, Volker M.; Wiessler, Manfred; Phillips, David H.; Schmeiser, Heinz H. (2007-05)
      Sprague-Dawley rats were treated by intratracheal instillation with a single dose of 0.2 mg/kg body wt of 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), and whole blood, lungs, pancreases, kidneys, urinary bladders, hearts, small intestines and livers were removed at various times after administration. At five posttreatment times (2 days, 2, 10, 20 and 36 weeks), DNA adducts were analysed in each tissue by (32)P-postlabelling to study their long-term persistence. 3-NBA-derived DNA adducts consisting of the same adduct pattern were observed in all tissues from animals killed between 2 days and 36 weeks and between 2 days and 20 weeks in blood. DNA isolated from whole blood contained the same 3-NBA-specific adduct pattern as that found in tissues. Although total adduct levels in the blood were much lower than those found in the lung, the target organ of 3-NBA tumourigenicity, they were related (20-25%, R(2) = 0.98) to the levels found in lung. In all organs, total adduct levels decreased over time to 20-30% of the initial levels till the latest time point (36 weeks) and showed a biphasic profile, with a rapid loss during the first 2 weeks followed by a much slower decline that reached a stable plateau at 20 weeks after treatment. These results show that uptake of 3-NBA by the lung induces high levels of specific DNA adducts in target and non-target organs of the rat. The correlation between DNA adducts in lung and blood suggests that persistent 3-NBA-DNA adducts in the blood may be useful biomarkers for human respiratory exposure to 3-NBA.
    • In vitro mammalian metabolism of the mitosis inhibitor zoxamide and the relationship to its in vitro toxicity.

      Oesch, F.; Metzler, M.; Fabian, E.; Kamp, H.; Bernshausen, T.; Damm, G.; Triebel, S.; Dohmer, J.; Landsiedel, R.; Van Ravenzwaay, B. (2010-01)
      The in vitro mammalian metabolism of the fungicide zoxamide is related to its in vitro mammalian toxicity. After incubation of zoxamide with rat liver microsomes leading to practically 100% metabolism (mostly hydroxylated zoxamide), the cytotoxicity (methyl thiazole tetrazolium (MTT) test) and the mitosis-inhibiting potential (shown by cell count and by cell cycle analysis) for V79 were not distinguishable from those of zoxamide, demonstrating that the hydroxylation of zoxamide did not change the cytotoxicity or mitosis-inhibiting potential as determined by these assays. After incubation of zoxamide with rat liver S9 predominantly leading to conjugation with glutathione, and after incubation of zoxamide with rat liver slices predominantly leading to the glucuronide of the hydroxylated zoxamide, these activities were eliminated demonstrating that the glutathione conjugate and the glucuronide had lost the activities in these assays due either to no intrinsic potential of these conjugates or to their inability to penetrate the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. It is concluded that the metabolic hydroxylation of zoxamide did not change its activity in the assays used for investigating its influence on cell proliferation, cell cycle and cytotoxicity, while the formation of conjugates with glutathione or glucuronic acid led to the apparent loss of these activities. Thus, with zoxamide as a prototype, it was shown that, in principle, mammalian metabolism and its relationship to mammalian detoxication of fungicidal mitosis inhibitors may be reasonably anticipated from in vitro studies. In addition, the results provide a rational for the observed absence of typically mitosis inhibition-associated toxicities of zoxamide in mammals in vivo.
    • Oxidatively damaged DNA in rats exposed by oral gavage to C60 fullerenes and single-walled carbon nanotubes.

      Folkmann, Janne K.; Risom, Lotte; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Wallin, Hakan; Loft, Steffen; Moller, Peter (2009-05)
      BACKGROUND: C60 fullerenes and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are projected to be used in medicine and consumer products with potential human exposure. The hazardous effects of these particles are expected to involve oxidative stress with generation of oxidatively damaged DNA that might be the initiating event in the development of cancer. OBJECTIVE: In this study we investigated the effect of a single oral administration of C60 fullerenes and SWCNT. METHODS: We measured the level of oxidative damage to DNA as the premutagenic 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in the colon mucosa, liver, and lung of rats after intragastric administration of pristine C60 fullerenes or SWCNT (0.064 or 0.64 mg/kg body weight) suspended in saline solution or corn oil. We investigated the regulation of DNA repair systems toward 8-oxodG in liver and lung tissue. RESULTS: Both doses of SWCNT increased the levels of 8-oxodG in liver and lung. Administration of C60 fullerenes increased the hepatic level of 8-oxodG, whereas only the high dose generated 8-oxodG in the lung. We detected no effects on 8-oxodG in colon mucosa. Suspension of particles in saline solution or corn oil yielded a similar extent of genotoxicity, whereas corn oil per se generated more genotoxicity than the particles. Although there was increased mRNA expression of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase in the liver of C60 fullerene-treated rats, we found no significant increase in repair activity. CONCLUSIONS: Oral exposure to low doses of C60 fullerenes and SWCNT is associated with elevated levels of 8-oxodG in the liver and lung, which is likely to be caused by a direct genotoxic ability rather than an inhibition of the DNA repair system.
    • Quantification of 3-nitrobenzanthrone-DNA adducts using online column-switching HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

      Gamboa da Costa, Goncalo; Singh, Rajinder; Arlt, Volker M.; Mirza, Amin; Richards, Meirion; Takamura-Enya, Takeji; Schmeiser, Heinz H.; Farmer, Peter B.; Phillips, David H. (2009-11)
      The aromatic nitroketone 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-nitro-7H-benz[de]anthracen-7-one; 3-NBA) is an extremely potent mutagen and a suspected human carcinogen detected in the exhaust of diesel engines and in airborne particulate matter. 3-NBA is metabolically activated via reduction of the nitro group to the hydroxylamine (N-OH-3-ABA) to form covalent DNA adducts. Thus far, the detection and quantification of covalent 3-NBA-DNA adducts has relied solely on (32)P-postlabeling methodologies. In order to expand the range of available techniques for the detection and improved quantification of 3-NBA-DNA adducts, we have developed a method based upon online column-switching HPLC coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, with isotopic dilution of (15)N-labeled internal standards. This methodology was applied to the determination of three 3-NBA-derived adducts: 2-(2'-deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (dG-N(2)-3-ABA), N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (dG-C8-N-3-ABA) and 2-(2'-deoxyguanosine-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (dG-C8-C2-3-ABA). Dose-dependent increases were observed for all three adducts when salmon testis DNA was reacted with N-acetoxy-3-aminobenzanthrone (N-AcO-3-ABA). dG-C8-C2-3-ABA was detected at much lower levels (overall 1%) than the other two adducts. DNA samples isolated from tissues of rats treated either intratracheally with 3-NBA or intraperitoneally with N-OH-3-ABA were analyzed by mass spectrometry, and the results compared to those obtained by (32)P-postlabeling. The method required 50 microg of hydrolyzed animal DNA on column and the limit of detection was 2.0 fmol for each adduct. dG-C8-C2-3-ABA was not observed in any of the samples providing confirmation that it is not formed in vivo. Linear regression analysis of the levels of dG-N(2)-3-ABA and dG-C8-N-3-ABA in the rat DNA showed a reasonable correlation between the two methods (R(2) = 0.88 and 0.93, respectively). In summary, the mass spectrometric method is a faster, more automated analytical approach that also provides structural confirmation of the adducts detected by (32)P-postlabeling, and it has sufficient sensitivity and precision to analyze DNA adducts in animals exposed to 3-NBA or its hydroxylamine metabolite.
    • TCDD deregulates contact inhibition in rat liver oval cells via Ah receptor, JunD and cyclin A.

      Weiss, C.; Faust, D.; Schreck, I.; Ruff, A.; Farwerck, T.; Melenberg, A.; Schneider, S.; Oesch-Bartlomowicz, B.; Zatloukalova, J.; Vondracek, J.; et al. (2008-04-03)
      The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor involved in physiological processes, but also mediates most, if not all, toxic responses to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Activation of the AhR by TCDD leads to its dimerization with aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (ARNT) and transcriptional activation of several phase I and II metabolizing enzymes. However, this classical signalling pathway so far failed to explain the pleiotropic hazardous effects of TCDD, such as developmental toxicity and tumour promotion. Thus, there is an urgent need to define genetic programmes orchestrated by AhR to unravel its role in physiology and toxicology. Here we show that TCDD treatment of rat liver oval cells leads to induction of the transcription factor JunD, resulting in transcriptional upregulation of the proto-oncogene cyclin A which finally triggers a release from contact inhibition. Ectopic expression of cyclin A in confluent cultures overcomes G(1) arrest, indicating that increased cyclin A levels are indeed sufficient to bypass contact inhibition. Functional interference with AhR-, but not with ARNT, abolished TCDD-induced increase in JunD and cyclin A and prevented loss of contact inhibition. In summary, we have discovered a novel AhR-dependent and probably ARNT-independent signalling pathway involving JunD and cyclin A, which mediates TCDD-induced deregulation of cell cycle control.
    • A technical mixture of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromo diphenyl ether (BDE47) and brominated furans triggers aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated gene expression and toxicity.

      Wahl, M.; Lahni, B.; Guenther, R.; Kuch, B.; Yang, L.; Straehle, U.; Strack, S.; Weiss, C. (2008-09)
      Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are found as ubiquitous contaminants in the environment, e.g., in sediments and biota as well as in human blood samples and mother's milk. PBDEs are neuro- and developmental toxins, disturb the endocrine system and some are even carcinogenic. Structural similarities of PBDEs with dioxin-like compounds, e.g., 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzodioxin (TCDD), have raised concern about a possible "dioxin-like" action of PBDEs. TCDD exerts its toxicity via binding to and activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). AhR ligands are in contrast to PBDEs usually coplanar compounds. Thus, PBDEs are not likely to be strong AhR agonists. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the most abundant PBDE congener, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromo diphenyl ether (BDE47), on AhR activity and signaling. Initially, we measured cytochrome P450 1A1 (Cyp1A1) induction as a readout for AhR activation by BDE47. Low grade purified BDE47 increased CYP1A1 levels in transformed and primary rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma cells. Chemical analysis of the BDE47 sample identified trace contaminations with brominated furans such as 2,3,7,8-tetrabromo dibenzodioxin (TBDF), which most likely were responsible for the observed activation of AhR. Subsequently, the BDE47 mixture was studied for its effect on AhR mediated toxicity and global gene expression. Indeed, in rat hepatoma cells and in zebrafish embryos the BDE47 mixture provoked changes in gene expression and toxicity similar to known AhR agonists. In addition to the dioxin-like actions, the BDE47 sample enhanced Cyp2B and Cyp3A expression suggesting that commercial PBDE mixtures, which also often contain brominated furans, may disturb cellular homeostasis at multiple levels.