• Dietary intake of meat and meat-derived heterocyclic aromatic amines and their correlation with DNA adducts in female breast tissue.

      Rohrmann, Sabine; Lukas Jung, Sea-Uck; Linseisen, Jakob; Pfau, Wolfgang (2009-03)
      It was the aim of this study to examine the association of the consumption of meat in general, meat prepared by different cooking methods and the dietary intake of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCA) with the level of DNA adducts in the breast tissue of women undergoing reduction mammoplasty. Dietary intake of meat and HCA were assessed via questionnaire in 44 women undergoing reduction mammoplasty. DNA adduct analysis in breast tissue was performed by (32)P-postlabelling analysis. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to examine the association of meat consumption and dietary HCA intake with tissue DNA adduct levels. A median DNA adduct level of 18.45 (interquartile range 12.81-25.65) per 10(9) nucleotides in breast tissue was observed; median HCA intake was 40.43 ng/day (interquartile range 19.55-102.33 ng/day). Total HCA intake (r = 0.33, P = 0.03), consumption of fried meat (r = 0.39, P = 0.01), beef (r = 0.32, P = 0.03) and processed meat (r = 0.51, P = 0.0004) were statistically significantly correlated with the level of DNA adducts in breast tissue. The detected DNA adducts could not be confirmed to be specific HCA-derived DNA adducts by comparison with external standards, using the (32)P-postlabelling assay. We observed strong correlations of dietary HCA intake and consumption of fried and processed meat with DNA adduct levels in breast tissue of 44 women. Since the detected DNA adducts were not necessarily specific only for HCA, it is possible that HCA intake is a surrogate of other genotoxic substances, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, in meat prepared at high temperatures.
    • Higher leukocyte 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and lower plasma ascorbate in aging humans?

      Siomek, Agnieszka; Gackowski, Daniel; Rozalski, Rafal; Dziaman, Tomasz; Szpila, Anna; Guz, Jolanta; Olinski, Ryszard (2007-01)
      Is oxidative damage of DNA responsible for physiological changes associated with aging? The authors note a positive correlation between the age of human subjects with the level of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in leukocyte DNA. The levels of urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine and 8-oxodG followed the same pattern of correlation. Age-dependent decline in the concentration of plasma vitamin C was also evident. These interesting observations in humans point towards the need to scrutinize in detail the role of oxidative DNA damage and compromised antioxidant defense systems in age-related physiological disorders.
    • Oxidative damage to DNA and antioxidant status in aging and age-related diseases.

      Olinski, Ryszard; Siomek, Agnieszka; Rozalski, Rafal; Gackowski, Daniel; Foksinski, Marek; Guz, Jolanta; Dziaman, Tomasz; Szpila, Anna; Tudek, Barbara (2007)
      Aging is a complex process involving morphologic and biochemical changes in single cells and in the whole organism. One of the most popular explanations of how aging occurs at the molecular level is the oxidative stress hypothesis. Oxidative stress leads in many cases to an age-dependent increase in the cellular level of oxidatively modified macromolecules including DNA, and it is this increase which has been linked to various pathological conditions, such as aging, carcinogenesis, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. It is, however, possible that a number of short-comings associated with gaps in our knowledge may be responsible for the failure to produce definite results when applied to understanding the role of DNA damage in aging and age-related diseases.
    • A short-term intervention trial with selenate, selenium-enriched yeast and selenium-enriched milk: effects on oxidative defence regulation.

      Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Bugel, Susanne; Krath, Britta N.; Hoac, Tien; Stagsted, Jan; Jorgensen, Karina; Bresson, June R.; Larsen, Erik H.; Dragsted, Lars O. (2008-04)
      Increased Se intakes have been associated with decreased risk of cancer and CVD. Several mechanisms have been proposed, including antioxidant effects through selenoproteins, induction of carcinogen metabolism and effects on the blood lipid profile. In a 4 x 1 week randomised, double-blind cross-over study, healthy young men supplemented their usual diet with selenate, Se-enriched yeast, Se-enriched milk or placebo (Se dose was 300 microg/d for selenate and Se-enriched yeast, and about 480 microg/d for Se-enriched milk) followed by 8-week washout periods. All Se sources increased serum Se levels after supplementation for 1 week. The effect of the organic forms did not differ significantly and both increased serum Se more than selenate. Conversely, thrombocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPX) was increased in the periods where subjects were supplemented with selenate but not in those where they were given Se-enriched yeast or Se-enriched milk. We found no effect on plasma lipid resistance to oxidation, total cholesterol, TAG, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, GPX, glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities measured in erythrocytes, GPX and GR activities determined in plasma, or GR and GST activities in thrombocytes. Leucocyte expression of genes encoding selenoproteins (GPX1, TrR1 and SelP), and of electrophile response element-regulated genes (GCLC, Fra1 and NQO1) were likewise unaffected at all time points following intervention. We conclude that thrombocyte GPX is specifically increased by short-term selenate supplementation, but not by short-term supplementation with organic Se. Short-term Se supplementation does not seem to affect blood lipid markers or expression and activity of selected enzymes and a transcription factor involved in glutathione-mediated detoxification and antioxidation.
    • Size distribution and total number concentration of ultrafine and accumulation mode particles and hospital admissions in children and the elderly in Copenhagen, Denmark.

      Andersen, Z.J.; Wahlin, P.; Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Ketzel, M.; Scheike, T.; Loft, S. (2008-07)
      OBJECTIVES: To study the association between short-term exposure to ultrafine particles and morbidity in Copenhagen, Denmark. METHODS: We studied the association between urban background levels of the total number concentration of particles (NC(tot), 6-700 nm in diameter) measured at a single site (15 May 2001 to 31 December 2004) and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular (CVD) and respiratory disease (RD) in the elderly (age >or=65 years), and due to asthma in children (age 5-18 years). We examined these associations in the presence of PM(10), PM(2.5) (particulate matter <10 and 2.5 microm in diameter, respectively) and ambient gasses. We utilised data on size distribution to calculate NC(tot) for four modes with median diameters 12, 23, 57 and 212 nm, and NC(100) (number concentration of particles <100 nm in diameter) and examined their associations with health outcomes. We used a time series Poisson generalised additive model adjusted for overdispersion, season, day of the week, public holidays, school holidays, influenza, pollen and meteorology, with up to 5 days' lagged exposure. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The adverse health effects of particulate matter on CVD and RD hospital admissions in the elderly were mainly mediated by PM(10) and accumulation mode particles with lack of effects for NC(100). For paediatric asthma, accumulation mode particles, NC(100) and nitrogen oxides (mainly from traffic related sources) were relevant, whereas PM(10) appeared to have little effect. Our results suggest that particle volume/mass from long-range transported air pollution is relevant for CVD and RD admissions in the elderly, and possibly particle numbers from traffic sources for paediatric asthma.