• Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort study.

      Buckland, Genevieve; Agudo, Antonio; Luján, Leila; Jakszyn, Paula; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Palli, Domenico; Boeing, Heiner; Carneiro, Fátima; Krogh, Vittorio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; et al. (2010-02)
      BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean dietary pattern is believed to protect against cancer, although evidence from cohort studies that have examined particular cancer sites is limited. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the association between adherence to a relative Mediterranean diet (rMED) and incident gastric adenocarcinoma (GC) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. DESIGN: The study included 485,044 subjects (144,577 men) aged 35-70 y from 10 European countries. At recruitment, dietary and lifestyle information was collected. An 18-unit rMED score, incorporating 9 key components of the Mediterranean diet, was used to estimate rMED adherence. The association between rMED and GC with respect to anatomic location (cardia and noncardia) and histologic types (diffuse and intestinal) was investigated. A calibration study in a subsample was used to control for dietary measurement error. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 8.9 y, 449 validated incident GC cases were identified and used in the analysis. After stratification by center and age and adjustment for recognized cancer risk factors, high compared with low rMED adherence was associated with a significant reduction in GC risk (hazard ratio: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.94). A 1-unit increase in the rMED score was associated with a decreased risk of GC of 5% (95% CI: 0.91, 0.99). There was no evidence of heterogeneity between different anatomic locations or histologic types. The calibrated results showed similar trends (overall hazard ratio for GC: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.89, 0.99). CONCLUSION: Greater adherence to an rMED is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of incident GC.
    • Cereal fiber intake may reduce risk of gastric adenocarcinomas: the EPIC-EURGAST study.

      Mendez, Michelle A.; Pera, Guillem; Agudo, Antonio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Palli, Domenico; Boeing, Heiner; Carneiro, Fatima; Berrino, Franco; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; et al. (2007-10-01)
      Numerous case-control studies suggest dietary fiber may reduce risk of gastric cancer, but this has not been confirmed prospectively. A previous case-control study reported reduced risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinomas associated with cereal fiber, but not with fruit or vegetable fiber. To date, different food sources of fiber have not been examined with respect to noncardia tumors or diverse histologic sub-types. This study prospectively examines associations between fiber from different food sources and incident gastric adenocarcinomas (GC) among more than 435,000 subjects from 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Subjects aged 25-70 years completed dietary questionnaires in 1992-98, and were followed up for a median of 6.7 years. About 312 incident GCs were observed. The relative risk of GC was estimated based on cohort-wide sex-specific fiber intake quartiles using proportional hazards models to estimate hazards ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Intakes of cereal fiber, but not total, fruit or vegetable fiber, were associated with reduced GC risk [adjusted HR for the highest vs. lowest quartile of cereal fiber 0.69, 0.48-0.99]. There was a strong inverse association for diffuse [HR 0.43, 0.22-0.86], but not intestinal type [HR 0.98, 0.54-1.80] tumors. Associations for cardia vs. noncardia tumors were similar to those for overall GC, although cardia associations did not reach significance. Cereal fiber consumption may help to reduce risk of GC, particularly diffuse type tumors. Further study on different food sources of fiber in relation to GC risk is warranted to confirm these relationships.
    • Cytokine gene polymorphisms and the risk of adenocarcinoma of the stomach in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST).

      Crusius, J.B.A.; Canzian, F.; Capella, G.; Pena, A .S.; Pera, G.; Sala, N.; Agudo, A..; Rico, F.; Del Giudice, G.; Palli, D.; et al. (2008-11)
      BACKGROUND: The relative contribution to gastric cancer (GC) risk of variants in genes that determine the inflammatory response remains mostly unknown and results from genotyping studies are inconsistent. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A nested case-control study within the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort was carried out, including 248 gastric adenocarcinomas and 770 matched controls. Twenty common polymorphisms at cytokine genes [interleukin (IL)1A, IL1B, IL1RN, IL4, IL4R, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL12A, IL12B, lymphotoxin alpha and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)] were analyzed. Antibodies against Helicobacter pylori (Hp) and CagA were measured. RESULTS: IL1RN 2R/2R genotype [odds ratio (OR) 2.43; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-4.96] and allele IL1RN Ex5-35C were associated with an increased risk of Hp(+) non-cardia GC. IL8 -251AA genotype was associated with a decreased risk of Hp(+) non-cardia GC (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.32-0.81), mainly of the intestinal type. These associations were not modified by CagA status. Carriers of IL1B -580C and TNF -487A alleles did not associate with an increased risk. A moderately increased risk of Hp(+) non-cardia GC for IL4R -29429T variant was observed (OR 1.74; 95% CI 1.15-2.63). CONCLUSION: This prospective study confirms the association of IL1RN polymorphisms with the risk of non-cardia GC and indicates that IL8 -251T>A may modify the risk for GC.
    • Determination of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine and creatinine in murine and human urine by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry: application to chemoprevention studies.

      Teichert, Friederike; Verschoyle, Richard D.; Greaves, Peter; Thorpe, James F.; Mellon, J. Kilian; Steward, William P.; Farmer, Peter B.; Gescher, Andreas J.; Singh, Rajinder (2009-01)
      Urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) represents a non-invasive biomarker for oxidative stress and may be useful for monitoring chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive interventions associated with cancer-related alterations in oxidative stress. We describe the development and validation of two separate liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) selected reaction monitoring (SRM) methods for the determination of 8-oxodG and creatinine in both murine and human urine using stable isotope labelled internal standards. Levels of 8-oxodG were normalised to creatinine. The LC/MS/MS methods were applied to two chemoprevention studies utilising tea polyphenols in humans and TRAMP (TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate) mice. Patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia received 1 g/day of green tea polyphenols (GTP), 1 g/day of black tea theaflavins (BTT) or no treatment for 4 weeks. TRAMP mice received GTP (0.05% in drinking water) for 4 or 25 weeks. Prostate pathology in TRAMP mice was not affected by GTP. Levels of 8-oxodG were not altered by tea polyphenols in either mice or humans. In TRAMP mice, urinary 8-oxodG levels were elevated with increasing age (p < 0.0001) but not changed by the presence of prostate tumours. In conclusion, the LC/MS/MS SRM methods described here are ideally suited for the accurate determination of 8-oxodG and creatinine in urine samples from both clinical and pre-clinical studies.
    • DNA repair polymorphisms and the risk of stomach adenocarcinoma and severe chronic gastritis in the EPIC-EURGAST study.

      Capella, Gabriel; Pera, Guillem; Sala, Nuria; Agudo, Antonio; Rico, Francisco; Del Giudicce, Giuseppe; Plebani, Mario; Palli, Domenico; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; et al. (2008-12)
      BACKGROUND: The contribution of genetic variation in DNA repair genes to gastric cancer (GC) risk remains essentially unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the relative contribution of DNA repair gene polymorphisms to GC risk and severe chronic atrophic gastritis (SCAG). Method A nested case control study within the EPIC cohort was performed including 246 gastric adenocarcinomas and 1175 matched controls. Controls with SCAG (n = 91), as defined by low pepsinogen A (PGA) levels, and controls with no SCAG (n = 1061) were also compared. Twelve polymorphisms at DNA repair genes (MSH2, MLH1, XRCC1, OGG1 and ERCC2) and TP53 gene were analysed. Antibodies against Helicobacter pylori were measured. RESULTS: No association was observed for any of these polymorphisms with stomach cancer risk. However, ERCC2 K751Q polymorphism was associated with an increased risk for non-cardial neoplasm [odds ratio (OR) = 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-3.12], being ERCC2 K751Q and D312N polymorphisms associated with the diffuse type. ERCC2 D312N (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.09-3.65) and K751Q alleles (OR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.01-3.30) and XRCC1 R399Q (OR = 1.69; 95% CI 1.02-2.79) allele were associated with an increased risk for SCAG. CONCLUSION: Our study supports a role of ERCC2 in non-cardial GC but not in cardial cancer. A concordant result was observed for subjects with low PGA levels. XRCC1 allele was associated also with SCAG. This is the first prospective study suggesting that individual variation in DNA repair may be relevant for gastric carcinogenesis, a finding that will require further confirmation validation in larger independent studies.
    • Prospective study of physical activity and risk of primary adenocarcinomas of the oesophagus and stomach in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition) cohort.

      Huerta, Jose Maria; Navarro, Carmen; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Steindorf, Karen; Buckland, Genevieve; Carneiro, Fatima; Johnsen, Nina Fons; Overvad, Kim; Stegger, Jakob; et al. (2010-05)
      OBJECTIVE: To analyse the association between types of physical activity (occupational, recreational and household, vigorous and overall) and risk of primary oesophageal (OAC) or gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC). METHODS: From nine European countries, 420,449 participants were recruited between 1991 and 2000 and followed-up for a mean of 8.8 years to register incident GAC and OAC. Information on physical activity (PA), diet, lifestyle and health-related variables was obtained at baseline. Helicobacter pylori infection status was considered in a subset of 1,211 participants. Analyses were repeated by tumour site (cardia/non-cardia) and histological type (intestinal/diffuse). RESULTS: During the follow-up, 410 GAC and 80 OAC occurred. A lower risk of overall and non-cardia GAC was found for increasing levels of a PA index which combined occupational PA with weekly time spent in sports and cycling. The hazard ratio (HR) of GAC was 0.69, 95% CI: 0.50-0.94, for the comparison between active and inactive participants according to the PA index (HR = 0.44, 95% CI:0.26-0.74, for non-cardia GAC). No effect was found for cardia tumours or histological subtypes of GAC. PA of any kind was not associated with OAC. CONCLUSIONS: Overall and distal (non-cardia) gastric tumours were inversely associated with time spent on cycling and sports and a total PA index. No association was found for any type of PA and risk of cardia cancers of the stomach.
    • Vitamins B2 and B6 and genetic polymorphisms related to one-carbon metabolism as risk factors for gastric adenocarcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

      Eussen, Simone J. P. M.; Vollset, Stein Emil; Hustad, Steinar; Midttun, Oivind; Meyer, Klaus; Fredriksen, Ase; Ueland, Per Magne; Jenab, Mazda; Slimani, Nadia; Ferrari, Pietro; et al. (2010-01)
      B vitamins and polymorphisms in genes coding for enzymes involved in one-carbon metabolism may affect DNA synthesis and methylation and thereby be implicated in carcinogenesis. Previous data on vitamins B2 and B6 and genetic polymorphisms other than those involving MTHFR as risk factors for gastric cancer (GC) are sparse and inconsistent. In this case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, cases (n = 235) and controls (n = 601) were matched for study center, age, sex, and time of blood sampling. B2 and B6 species were measured in plasma, and the sum of riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide was used as the main exposure variable for vitamin B2 status, whereas the sum of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, pyridoxal, and 4-pyridoxic acid was used to define vitamin B6 status. In addition, we determined eight polymorphisms related to one-carbon metabolism. Relative risks for GC risk were calculated with conditional logistic regression, adjusted for Helicobacter pylori infection status and smoking status. Adjusted relative risks per quartile (95% confidence interval, P(trend)) were 0.85 (0.72-1.01, 0.06) for vitamin B2 and 0.78 (0.65-0.93, <0.01) for vitamin B6. Both relations were stronger in individuals with severe chronic atrophic gastritis. The polymorphisms were not associated with GC risk and did not modify the observed vitamin-cancer associations. In summary, results from this large European cohort study showed an inverse association between vitamin B2 and GC risk, which is borderline significant, and a significant inverse association between vitamin B6 and GC risk.