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Concentrations of resveratrol and derivatives in foods and estimation of dietary intake in a Spanish population: European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Spain cohort. (Zamora-Ros, Raul et al)
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Perceived barriers and motivators to smoking cessation among socially-disadvantaged populations in Poland.(2019-06-14)OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at assessment of the perceived barriers and motivators to smoking cessation among socially-disadvantaged populations in Poland. It is hypothesized that different factors can be considered depending on the level of smoking addiction. Therefore, a comparison between light and heavy smokers was performed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data collected during the second wave of a cross-sectional study carried out in the Piotrkowski District in October 2016 - February 2017 among 1668 socio-economically disadvantaged persons constituted the source of information for the present study. Barriers and motivators to smoking cessation among daily smokers were identified via face-to face interviews. RESULTS: About one-third of the studied population admitted to being current daily smokers, almost 75% of whom were heavy smokers. The most common barriers to quitting smoking were related to difficulties in quitting (62%), the lack of willingness to quit (56%), as well as addiction and withdrawal symptoms (craving cigarettes [65%], habit [56%], stress and mood swings [55%]). A significantly higher proportion of such barriers was noted among heavy smokers compared to light smokers (p < 0.05). The following motivations to quit were pointed out by the respondents: available pharmacotherapy (47%), access to a free-of-charge cessation clinic (40%), and encouragement and support provided by their doctor (30%), with no differences between various levels of smoking addiction (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Developing effective interventions targeted at unique deprived populations requires understanding the barriers and motivators to quitting smoking. Social support and financial issues, including free-of-charge pharmacotherapy and cessation clinics, as well as doctor's encouragement and support, are crucial for successful smoking cessation in this vulnerable population
Health risk in road transport workers. Part I. Occupational exposure to chemicals, biomarkers of effect.(2019-06-14)Motor vehicle emissions constitute a mixture of different chemicals: volatile organic solvents, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, isocyanates, etc. Drivers working in car cabins are exposed to chemicals deriving from incomplete combustion of fuels, exhaust emissions from working engines and fuel evaporation. Concentrations of these substances are rather low and do not exceed the applicable hygiene standards, but some of them pose, or are suspected to pose, carcinogenic risk. The interaction of chemical substances with human cells and tissues can lead to a number of modifications of metabolic pathways at a cellular level. The first biological mechanism of metabolic modulation is an inflammatory state and oxidative stress generation. The aim of this review is to analyze biomarkers of effect and to assess the hazard of occupational exposure of drivers. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(3):267–80
Health promotion and prevention in occupational health systems in Europe.(2019-06-14)Objectives: In the contemporary Western culture, working population health issues, stressed in various publications, have been perceived as a crucial part of public health. To deal with occupational health issues properly, occupational health services (OHS), aiming at the protection of the workers’ health, are organized in many countries. The survey was to find the differences in occupational health systems that the European Economic Area countries use in order to execute prophylactic activities focused on diseases of affluence and how the OHS are used for health promotion actions. Material and Methods: The survey was conducted with the use of an on-line expert questionnaire. No deep statistical analysis was performed as for the designed aims of the study simple statistics were sufficient. Results: All the reviewed countries have organized OHS. The funding mechanisms are based mainly on the financial involvement of employers. In the majority of countries, the main goal of the OHS is certification of the ability to work. Workplace surveillance aiming at the occupational risk assessment and health promotion activities that focus on work-related and/or occupational diseases are the most popular services provided within national systems. Conclusions: Occupational health professionals are well placed to perform actions directed at health promotion and prophylactics of a wide range of diseases – not only occupational/work-related, but also non-communicable, particularly life-style-related diseases of affluence. The engagement of the occupational medical services (OMS) in prevention of the non-work-related health issues would be valuable. However, it would be inevitable for employers to finance a wider range of services to a greater extent.
The association between night shift work and nutrition patterns among nurses: a literature review.(2019-06-14)The shift work system may affect the temporal distribution of eating and diet quality. The paper aimed at reviewing a body of research examining the associations between night shift work and dietary habits among nurses. Data from the PubMed and Google Schoolar databases, as well as references lists in selected papers were searched. The authors used the following keywords: nurses, shift work, diet, nutrition. Papers published in English or Polish were selected for the review, and as many as 19 papers published in 2000−2017 were eventually identified. The studies varied greatly with respect to the study size, subjects’ age and the duration of night shift work. The major problem was the heterogeneity of the tools used for dietary assessment. Self-administered questionnaires were used and analyses were rarely adjusted for confounders. Alcohol consumption was the most frequently analyzed aspect (N = 8 studies), followed by the total energy (N = 7), protein, fat (N = 6), and carbohydrate intake, coffee and fruit consumption (N = 5). The results showed quite a consistent association of night work with higher coffee (caffeine) consumption, as well as lower alcohol, and fruit and vegetables consumption. Few studies also reported more frequent snacks consumption, later time of the last meal, eating at night, meals irregularity, and a poorer diet quality among night shift nurses when compared to the reference. The review showed some poor nutritional habits among nurses working night shifts. However, the topic warrants further attention, owing to the relatively small number of the studies performed so far, and their numerous methodological limitations.
[Health promotion in medium-sized and large companies in Poland in 2017 - activities, implementation, effects and difficulties].(2019-06-14)Background: The paper presents the state of workplace health promotion in Poland as of December 2017. Material and Methods: Standardized computer-assisted personal interviews (CAPI) were conducted on a representative sample of 1000 companies employing over 50 people. Results: Few companies (37%) actually know the health needs of their employees, whereas 25% admit that they care about health more than it is required by law, and declare their increased involvement in that area. At the same time, 55% of companies sponsor sports tickets, and 52% cover the costs of medical care. Every second company supports physical activity in other ways and improves the working environment. Every third offers medical prophylaxis, takes care of stress reduction and healthy eating habits, or solves the problems of alcohol consumption. The main reasons for such activities are the company’s image (79%), good social atmosphere (72%) and employee’s work performance (69%), while the prevention of health problems is rarely indicated (43%). The effects of workplace health promotion measures include improved productivity (50%), a better health condition (49%) and an increased identification with the company (47%). As for the obstacles, these is a shortage of financial resources (53%), the lack of favorable fiscal and legal solutions (48%), low interest among employees (45%), the lack of skilled people to manage health promotion (42%) and low awareness of its benefits (37%). Companies that are consciously involved in health promotion and monitor the actual health needs implement more activities, evaluate them more often, recognize their positive effects, and are able to better motivate their employees. Conclusions: There is a need to develop systemic solutions that foster health promotion in companies, to disseminate knowledge about the benefits associated with it, and to train the staff responsible for employee health management.