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Concentrations of resveratrol and derivatives in foods and estimation of dietary intake in a Spanish population: European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Spain cohort. (Zamora-Ros, Raul et al)
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Duration of breastfeeding and psychomotor development in 1-year-old children - Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study.(2019-04-03)The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between breastfeeding duration and child neurodevelopment based on the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. The current analysis included 501 mother-child pairs. The analysis evaluating the association between the length of breastfeeding and child neurodevelopment considered the following variables: maternal age and body mass index, weight gain during pregnancy, parental level of education, marital status, socioeconomic status, child gender, birthweight, type of delivery, preterm delivery, pre- and postnatal exposure to tobacco constituents and child day care attendance. Psychomotor development was assessed in 1-year-olds on the <i>Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development</i>. The length of breastfeeding correlated positively with maternal age at delivery (ρ = 0.13), maternal and paternal level of education (ρ = 0.2 and ρ = 0.14 respectively), birthweight (ρ = 0.1) and marital status (ρ = 0.16) (p < 0.05). A negative correlation between the length of breastfeeding and maternal smoking status during the first year after delivery (ρ = -0.19) and weight gain during pregnancy (r = -0.1) was observed (p < 0.05). The association between the duration of breastfeeding and child development was not statistically significant in the model with the inclusion of confounding variables. A significant association between language development and maternal level of education (p = 0.004), gender of the child (p = 0.0007) and maternal weight gain during pregnancy (p = 0.01) was found. A negative association between cognitive development and maternal salivary cotinine during pregnancy (p = 0.03) and a negative association between motor development and maternal smoking status during the first year after delivery (p = 0.007) were also found. This study found no significant association between the duration of breastfeeding and child development after adjustment for confounders. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(2):175-84.
Cytostatics as hazardous chemicals in healthcare workers' environment.(2019-04-03)Cytostatics not only induce significant side-effects in patients treated oncologically but also pose a threat to the health of occupationally exposed healthcare workers: pharmacists, physicians, nurses and other personnel. Since the 1970s numerous reports from various countries have documented the contamination of working areas with cytostatics and the presence of drugs/metabolites in the urine or blood of healthcare employees, which directly indicates the occurrence of occupational exposure to these drugs. In Poland the significant scale of occupational exposure to cytostatics is also confirmed by the data collected in the central register of occupational carcinogens/mutagens kept by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine. The assessment of occupational exposure to cytostatics and health risks constitutes employers' obligation. Unfortunately, the assessment of occupational risk resulting from exposure to cytostatics raises a number of concerns. Provisions governing the problem of workers' health protection are not unequivocal because they derive from a variety of law areas, especially in a matter of hazard classification and safety data sheets for cytostatics. Moreover, no legally binding occupational exposure limits have been set for cytostatics or their active compounds, and analytical methods for these substances airborne and biological concentrations are lacking. Consequently, the correct assessment of occupational exposure to cytostatics, the evaluation of health hazards and the development of the proper preventive strategy appear difficult. The authors of this article described and discussed the amendments to the European provisions concerning chemicals in the light of employers' obligations in the field of employees' heath protection against the consequences of exposure to cytostatics. Some modifications aimed at a more effective health protection of workers occupationally exposed to cytostatics were also proposed. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(2):141-59.
Analysis of bus drivers reaction to simulated traffic collision situations - eye-tracking studies.(2019-04-03)The aim of the study was to establish whether the driver's visual strategy may influence a driver's behavior to avoid a crash in a high-risk situation. Any published papers on drivers' visual strategies just before a crash were not found. Tests were performed using a high-tech driving bus simulator. Participants comprised 45 men drivers, aged 43.5±7.9 years old, seniority as a bus driver of 13.3±8.6 years. The tests were preceded by medical examinations: general, neurological and ophthalmological. Each participant drove the same city route for approximately 40 min (entire route - ER). In the final phase, a collision situation was simulated (a phantom car blocked the participant's right of way). Driver's visual strategy was analyzed using the FaceLab device with 2 cameras during ER and just before collision. The field-of-view covered by camera 1 was divided into 8 regions, by camera 2 into 10 regions. The distribution of gazes in regions was a criterion of visual strategy. Thirty-five drivers completed the simulated driving test, 14 escaped the collision, 21 crashed. These groups differed only in resting systolic blood pressure before the test. The analysis of covariance, after adjusting to this factor, indicated that during the ER visual strategy recorded by camera 1 did not differ between groups, in camera 2 the drivers in the crash group fixed their gaze more frequently (p = 0.049) in region 3 (close part of the road in front of the windshield). Just before the collision drivers who escaped the collision fixed their gaze significantly more often in region 6 (left side of the road) in camera 1 and in region 6 (in front of the windshield,) and region 10 (right side) in camera 2. The visual strategy has an impact on the road safety. The analysis of visual strategies may be a useful tool for the training of drivers. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(2):161-74.
Sociodemographic, Lifestyle, Environmental and Pregnancy-Related Determinants of Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy.(2019-03-02)Characterization of dietary patterns represents a valid and meaningful measure of overall diet quality and nutrient intake. The study aims at evaluating the sociodemographic, lifestyle, environmental, and pregnancy-related determinants of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy.
[Assessment of temporary hearing changes related to work as a bartender].(2019-02-28)Noise in entertainment industry often reaches high sound pressure levels. Nevertheless, the risk of hearing loss in this sector is insufficiently recognized. The aim of this study was the assessment of the relationship between noise exposure and temporary threshold shifts (TTS) for people working as bartenders at a variety of entertainment venues. The study comprised a total of 18 bartenders (mean age was 25±7 years old) employed at a music club (N = 8), pub (N = 5) and discotheque (N = 5). Personal dosimeters were used for determining noise levels and frequency characteristics. Hearing was evaluated by pre- (before work) and post-exposure (up to 15 min after the end of work) pure tone audiometry. Hearing tests were carried out for bartenders during 2 or 3 sessions while working on weekends. The mean personal noise exposure level normalized to a nominal 8-hour working day was 95 dBA, above 4 times higher than the accepted legal limit. The TTS values (10 dB HL or more) were significant at 4 kHz for both ears for 77% of bartenders. People working as bartenders represent a professional group with an increased risk of hearing loss. Raising awareness of this fact and implementing hearing protection programs in this group of workers is urgently needed, in line with the European Commission Directive (EU Directive 2003/10/EC). Med Pr. 2019;70(1):17-25.